Program Schedule

1207
Altered Immune Responses in the Setting of Obesity

Session: Symposium: When Bigger is Not Better - Infectious Diseases and Obesity
Friday, October 10, 2014: 2:00 PM
Room: The Pennsylvania Convention Center: 115-ABC
Melinda Beck, PhD, School of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC

CURRICULUM VITAE Melinda A. Beck, Ph.D. University of NC at Chapel Hill Departments of Nutrition and Pediatrics 2303 MHRC, CB #7461 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7224 Voice: (919) 966-6809 Fax: (919) 843-0776 melinda_beck@unc.edu EDUCATION 1987 Ph.D. in Medical Microbiology and Immunology. The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Dissertation entitled "Regulation of Cell-Mediated Immunity During Reinfection with Influenza Virus". J. F. Sheridan, advisor. 1983 M.S. in Biological Sciences. California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Major area of study was medical microbiology with an emphasis on host-parasite relationships. Master's thesis entitled "Development of an Indirect Immunofluorescent Test for Gardnerella vaginalis". 1978 B.A. in Zoology. University of California at Berkeley. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE 7/09 to present Associate Chair, Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of NC at Chapel Hill 6/05 to 8/11 Director, Division of Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Nutrition 9/04-present Professor, Departments of Nutrition and Pediatrics, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 4/98-Present Associate Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Nutrition, School of Medicine School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 9/96-4/98 Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine and School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 9/93-Present Fellow, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 9/92 – 4/98 Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 10/91 - 9/92 Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 7/91 - 9/91 Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE. 7/89 - 6/91 Instructor, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE. 3/87 - 6/89 Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE. 9/84 - 3/87 Graduate Research Associate, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 9/82 - 9/84 Graduate Research Associate, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 9/81 - 9/82 Research Associate, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 9/80 - 9/81 Laboratory Technician II, Flow Laboratories, McLean VA. HONORS AND SELECTED INVITED SPEAKER American Society for Microbiology, Foundation for Microbiology Lectures Program. Speaker: July 1, 1995 - June 30, 1997. E.L.R. Stockstad Award, 2001. American Society for Nutritional Sciences, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Pedro Kouri”, Havana, Cuba. Commeorativa Centenario del Natalicio de Pedro Kouri, medal given for outstanding contribution to science, 2/2003. National Academy of Sciences, Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change. Invited Participant, 9/11-9/12, 1995. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Invited Speaker at International Symposium “Human Viral Diseases: Selenium, Antioxidants and Other Emerging Strategies of Therapy and Prevention” 4/19-4/21, 1996, European Academy, Nonnweller, Germany Invited Speaker and Participant, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Workshop on “Nutrition and Immune Function: Strategies for Sustainment in the Field” May, 1996, Fort Detrick, Frederick MD. Invited to brief Harold Varmus M.D., Director of NIH, on antioxidant status and viral infection, 10/17/96. Invited Speaker, International Conference on Nutrition and Immunology, 5/5-5/7, 1997,Atlanta, GA. Invited Speaker, International Congress of Nutrition, 7/27-8/1, 1997, Montreal, Canada. Invited Speaker, Marabou Symposium, Nutrition and Viruses-From Molecular Biology to Public Health, June 11-13, 1999, Stockholm, Sweden Invited Speaker, Molecular Biology of Oxidative Stress, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 3/5-3/8, 2000 Member, Institute of Medicine Committee on Mineral Requirements for Cognitive and Physical Performance of Military Personnel, 2005-2006. Invited Speaker, Obesity Society Meeting 2009 Co-Chair FASEB 2011 Summer Workshop, Nutrition and Immune Function Member, INSPIRE Committee, 2012 Invited Speaker, British Society for Immunology Hot Topic Event, Jan 2013 Chair, FASEB 2015 Summer Workshop: Nutrition and Immune Function BIBLIOGRAPHY Contributions to Text Books Tracy, S., Chapman, N.M., Rubocki, R.J. and Beck, M.A. 1995. Host immune responses to enterovirus infections. IN: Human Enterovirus Infections. H.A. Rotbart (ed), pp 175-190. Beck, MA. (2000) Nutritional effects on the pathogen genome and phenotypic expression of disease. In Nutrition and Immunology. (Gershwin, M.E., German, J.B., Keen, C.L., Eds) Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp4 57-468. Beck, M.A. 2001 and 2005. Selenium as an antiviral agent. IN: Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health. D.L. Hatfield (ed). Pgs 235-246 In Refereed Journals: Milner JJ, Wang J, Paich HA, Sheridan PA, Ebbels T, Beck MA, Saric J. 1H NMR-based profiling reveals differential immune-metabolic networks during influenza infection in obese mice; PLos1.(In Press) Milner JJ and Beck MA. 2014. Obesity and influenza infection severity. Future Virol (In press) Milner JJ, Sheridan PA, Karlsson EA, Schultz-Cherry S, Shi, Q and Beck MA. 2013 Diet-induced obese mice exhibit heightened lung inflammatory and cross-reactive CD8+ T cell responses, not enhanced mortality, during a secondary 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection. J Immunol:191 2474-85. Paich H, Sheridan PA, Handy, J, Karlsson E, Hudgens M, Weir, S, Noah T, and Beck MA. 2013. Overweight and obese adult humans have a defective cellular immune response to pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. Obesity (Mar 20. doi: 10.1002/oby.20383. [Epub ahead of print] Antoniak S, Owens AP, Baunacke M, Williams JC, Lee RD, Weithauser A, Sheridan PA, Malz R, Luyendyk JP, Esserman, DA, Regjo J, Kirchhofer D, Blaxall B, Pawlinski R, Beck MA, Rauch U, and Mackman N. 2013. PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response after viral infection. J Clin Investigation 123:1310-1322. Meydani, S. and Beck, M. (2012). Editorial. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 33(1), 1. Beck, MA. 2012. Influenza and obesity: Will vaccines and antivirals protect? J Infect 205(2), 172- 173. Milner, J. J. and Beck, M. A. 2012. The impact of obesity on the immune response to infection. Proc Nutr Soc, 4, 1-9. Sheridan, P., Paich, H., Handy, J., Karlsson, E., Hudgens, M., Sammon, A., Holland, L., Weir, S., Noah, T., and Beck, MA. 2011. Obesity is associated with impaired immune response to influenza vaccination in humans. Intern J Obesity 36:1072-7 . Karlsson, EA, Sheridan PA and Beck MA. 2010. Diet-induced obesity impairs the T cell memory response to influenza virus infection. J. Immunol. 184:3127-33. Karlsson EA and Beck MA. 2010. The burden of obesity on infectious disease. Exp Biol Med 235:1412-24. Schwerbrock NM, Karlsson EA, Shi Q, Sheridan PA and Beck MA. 2009. Fish oil-fed mice have impaired resistance to influenza infection. J Nutr. 139:1588-94. Karlsson EA, Wang S, Shi Q, Coleman RA and Beck MA. 2009. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 is essential for the immune response to infection with coxsackievirus B3 in mice. J. Nutr. 139:779-783. Sheridan PA and Beck MA. 2009. The dendritic and T cell responses to herpes simplex virus are modulated by dietary vitamin E. Free Radic Biol Med 46:1581-1588 Smith, AG, Sheridan PA, Tseng, R., Sheridan, J, Beck MA. 2008. Selective impairment in dendritic cell function and altered antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in diet-induced obese mice infected with influenza virus. Immunol 126:268-79. Sheridan PA and Beck MA 2008 The immune response to herpes simplex virus encephalitis in mice is modulated by dietary vitamin E. J Nutr 138:130-7. Sheridan PA, Zhong N, Carlson BA, Perella CM, Hatfield DL, Beck MA 2007. Decreased selenoprotein expression alters the immune response during influenza virus infection in mice. Jaspers I, Zhang W, Brighton LE, Carson JL, Styblo M, Beck MA 2007. Selenium deficiency alters epithelial cell morphology and responses to influenza. Free Radic Biol Med. 15;42(12):1826-1837. Beck, MA 2007. Selenium and vitamin E status: impact on viral pathogenicity. J. Nutr. 137(5):1338-40. Smith, AG, Sheridan PA, Harp JB, Beck MA. 2007. Increased mortality and altered immune response in obese mice infected with influenza virus. J. Nutr. 137(5):1236-43. Li, W. and Beck, MA 2007. Selenium deficiency induced an altered immune response and increased survival following influenza A/PR8/34 infection. Exp Biol Med Styblo M, Walton FS, Harmon AW, Sheridan PA and Beck MA. 2007. Activation of superoxide dismutase in selenium-deficient mice infected with influenza virus. J Trace Elem Med Biol 21:52-62 Gay RT, Belisle S, Beck MA and Meydani SM. 2006 An aged host promotes the evolution of an avirulent coxsackievirus strain into a virulent strain. PNAS 103:13825-13830. Li, W and Beck MA. 2006. Vitamin C deficiency increases the lung pathology of influenza virus infected gulo -/- mice. J. Nutr. 136:2611-2616. Jaspers, I., Ciencewicki, J.M., Zhang, W., Brighton, L.E., Carson, J.L., Beck, M.A., and Madden, M.C. 2005. Diesel exhaust enhances influenza infections in human respiratory epithelial cells. Toxicolol. Sci 85:990-1002. Beck MA, Shi Q, Morris VC, Levander OA. 2005. Benign coxsackievirus damages heart muscle in iron-loaded vitamin E-deficient mice. Free Radic Biol Med 38:112-116. Beck, M.A., Shi, Q., and Harruff, R.C. 2004. Unexpected hazard of illegal immigration: Outbreak of viral myocarditis exacerbated by confinement and deprivation in a shipboard cargo container. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 25:117-24. Beck, M.A., Handy, J. and Levander, O.A. 2004. Host nutritional status: The neglected virulence factor. Trends Microbiol. 12:417-23.85:990-1002. McDade, T.W., Kuzawa, C., Adair, L.S., and Beck, MA. 2004. Prenatal and early postnatal environments are significant predictors of IgE concentration in Filipino adolescents. Clin Exp Allergy 34:44-56. Beck, M.A., Handy, J. and Levander, O.A. 2004. Host nutritional status: The neglected virulence factor. Trends Microbiol. 12:417-23. Li, M.K., Beck, M.A., Shi, Q., and Harruff, R.C. 2004. Unexpected hazard of illegal immigration: Outbreak of viral myocarditis exacerbated by confinement and deprivation in a shipboard cargo container. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 25:117-24. McDade, T.W., Kuzawa, C., Adair, L.S., and M. Beck. 2004. Prenatal and early postnatal environments are significant predictors of IgE concentration in Filipino adolescents. Clin Exp Allergy. 34:44-50. Beck, M.A., Handy, J. and Levander, O.A. 2003. Selenium deficiency and viral infection. J Nutr. 133:1463S-7S. Beck, M.A., Williams-Toone, D. and Levander, O.A. 2003. Coxsackievirus B3-resistant mice become susceptible in Se/Vitamin E. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 54:1263-1270. Beck, M.A., Handy, J. and Levander, O.A. 2002. The role of oxidative stress in viral infections. Ann. NY Acad. Sci 917:906-912. Lin, S., Shi, Q., Nix, B.F., Styblo, M., Beck, M.A., Herbin-Davis, K.M., Hall, L.L., Simeonsson, J.B., and Thomas, D.J. 2002. A novel S-adenosyl-L-methionine: Arsenic (III) methyltransferase from rat liver cytosol. J. Biol. Chem. 277:10795-10803. Nelson, H.K, Shi,.Q., Van Dael, P., Schriffrin E.J., Blum S., Barclay D., Levander, O.A. and Beck, M.A. 2001. Host selenium status as a driving force for influenza virus mutations. FASEB J 10.1096/fj.01-0115fje. Beck MA. Levander OA. 2000. Host nutritional status and its effect on a viral pathogen. J. Infect. Dis. Infectious Diseases. 182:S93-6. Beck, M.A., Nelson, H.K, Shi,.Q., Van Dael, P., Schriffrin E.J., Blum S., Barclay D. and Levander, O.A. 2001. Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection. FASEB J 10.1096/fj.00-0721fje. McDade, T.W., Beck, M.A., Kuzawa, C.W., Adair, L.S. and Beck, M.A. 2001. Prenatal undernutrition, postnatal environments and antibody response to vaccination in adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr &4:543-548. McDade, T.W. Beck, M.A., Kuzawa, C.W. and Adair, L.S. 2001. Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal growth are associated with adolescent thymic function. J. Nutr 131:1225-1231. Beck, M.A. and Matthews, C.C. 2000. Micronutrients and host resistance to viral infection. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59: 1-5. Beck, M.A. 2000. Nutritionally induced oxidative stress: effect on viral disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71:1676S-9S Dawson, T.C., Beck, M.A., Kuziel, W.A., Henderson, F.W., Maeda, N. 2000. Contrasting effects of CCR5 and CCR2 deficiency in the pulmonary inflammatory response to influenza A virus. Amer. J. Pathol. 156:1951-1959. Levander, O.A. and Beck, M.A. 1999. Selenium and viral virulence. Brit. Med. J. 55:528-533. Beck, M.A. 1999. Selenium and host defense towards viruses. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 58:707-711 Beck, M.A. 1998. The influence of antioxidant nutrients on viral infection. Nutr. Rev. 56:S140-6. Beck, M.A., Esworthy, R.S., Ho, Y.-S. and Chu, F.-F. 1998. Glutathione peroxidase protects mice from viral-induced myocarditis. FASEB J 12:1143-1149. Beck, M.A. and Levander, O.A. 1998. Dietary oxidative stress and the potentiation of viral infection. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 18:93-116. Beck, M.A. and Levander, O.A. 1997. Diet and potential effects on CVB-induced disease. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 223: 81-96. Beck, M.A. 1997. Rapid genomic evolution of a non-virulent coxsackievirus B3 in selenium-deficient mice. Biomed Environ Sci 10:307-315 Levander O.A. and Beck, M.A. 1997. Interacting nutritional and infectious etiologies of Keshan Disease: Insights from coxsackievirus B-induced myocarditis and mice deficient in selenium or vitamin E. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 56:5-22. Beck, M.A. 1997. Increased virulence of coxsackievirus B3 due to vitamin E or selenium deficiency. J Nutr 127:966S-970S. Levander, O.A. and Beck, M.A. 1996. The role of selenium as an essential nutrient in humans and its role as a determinant of viral virulence. Proc. Symp. Selenium in the Environment, Veterinary Medicine Extension, University of California Davis, pp 7-30. Beck, M.A. 1996. The role of nutrition in viral disease. J. Nutr. Biochem.7:683-690. Levander, O.A., Ager, A.L., and Beck, M.A. 1995. Dietary implications for parasites and viral disease. IN: Nutrition, Lipids, Health and Disease. A.S.H. Ong and L. Packer (eds), pp 280- 292. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. Levander, O.A., Ager, A.L. Jr., and Beck M.A. 1995. Vitamin E and selenium: contrasting and interacting nutritional determinants of host resistance to parasitic and viral infection. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 54:475-487. Cook, D.N., Beck, M.A., Coffman, T., Kirby, S.L., Sheridan, J.F., Pragnell, I.B. and Smithies, O. 1995Requirement of MIP-1 for inflammatory response to viral infection. Science 269:1583- 1585. Beck, M.A., Shi, Q., Morris, V.C., and Levander, O.A. 1995. Rapid genomic evolution of a non- virulent Coxsackievirus B3 in selenium-deficient mice results in selection of identical virulent isolates. Nature Medicine 1:433-436. Beck, M.A., Kolbeck, P.C., Rohr, L.H., Shi, Q., Morris, V.C., and Levander, O.A. 1994. Increased virulence of a human enterovirus (coxsackievirus B3) in selenium-deficient mice. J. Infect. Dis. 170:351-357. Beck, M. A., Kolbeck, P.C., Rohr, L.H., Shi, Q., Morris, V. C. and Levander, O.A. 1994 Amyocarditic coxsackievirus becomes myocarditic in selenium deficient mice. J Med Virol. 43:166-170 Beck, M.A., Kolbeck, P.C., Rohr, L.H., Shi, Q., Morris, V.C. and Levander, O.A. 1994. Vitamin E deficiency intensifies the myocardial injury of coxsackievirus B3 infection of mice. J. Nutr.124:345-358. Gauntt, C. J., Higdon, A. L., Arizpe, H.M., Maull, E. A., Lutton, C.W., Beck, M.A., Chapman, N.M., McManus, B.M., Mullican, J.C. and Tracy, S.M. 1992. Specific and nonspecific heart defenses in enteroviral infections, pgs 310-324. In International Symposium on Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy, ed. H.-R. Figulla, Springer, Berlin. Beck, M.A., Tracy, S., Coller, B.A., Chapman, N.M., Hufnagel, G., Johnson, J.W. and Lomonossoff, G. 1991. Comoviruses and enteroviruses share a T cell epitope. Virol. 186:238-246. Tracy, S. Chapman, N.M. and Beck, M.A. 1991. Molecular biology and pathogenesis of coxsackie B viruses. Rev. Med. Virol. 1:145-154. Beck, M.A. and Tracy, S. 1990. Evidence for a group-specific enterovirus antigen(s) recognized by human T cells. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:1822-1827. Tracy, S., Wiegard, V., McManus, B., Gauntt, C., Pallansch, M., Beck, M. and Chapman, N. 1990. Molecular approaches to enteroviral diagnosis in idiopathic cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. JACC 15:1688-1694. Tracy, S., Chapman, N., McManus, B., Pallansch, M., Beck, M. and Carstens, J. 1990. A molecular and serologic evaluation of enteroviral involvement in human myocarditis. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 22:403-414. Coller, B., Chapman, N., Beck, M., and Tracy, S. 1990. Echovirus 22 is an atypical enterovirus. J. Virol. 54: 2692-2701. Beck, M.A., Chapman, N.M., McManus, B.M., Mullican, J.C., and Tracy, S. 1990. Secondary enterovirus infection in the murine model of myocarditis: pathological and immunological aspects. Am. J. Pathol. 136: 669-681. Beck, M.A., and Tracy, S. 1989. Murine cell-mediated immune response recognizes an enterovirus group-specific antigen(s). J. Virol. 63: 4148-4156. Beck, M.A., and Sheridan, J.F. 1989. Regulation of lymphokine response during reinfection by influenza virus. Production of a factor that inhibits lymphokine activity. J. Immunol. 142: 3560- 3567. Glaser, R., Rice, J., Sheridan, J., Fertel, R., Stout, J., Speicher, C., Pinsky, D., Kohr, M., Post, A., Beck, M., and Kiecolt-Glaser, J. 1987. Stress-related immune suppression: health plications. Brain, Behavior, Immun. 1: 6-14. Sheridan, J. F., Beck, M., Smith, C.C., and Aurelian, L. 1987. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus is associated with the production of a low molecular weight factor that inhibits lymphokine activity in vitro. J. Immunol. 138:1234-1239. Sheridan, J.F., Beck, M., Aurelian, L., and Radowsky, M. 1985. Immunity to herpes simplex virus: Virus reactivation modulates lymphokine activity. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 449-456. Cano, R., Beck, M.A. and Grady, D. 1983. Detection of Gardnerella vaginalis on vaginal smears by immunofluorescence. Can. J. Microbiol. 29: 27-32. GRANTS FUNDED-Total Direct Costs Shown (PAST AND PRESENT) American Heart Association, Nebraska Affiliate (PI). "Coxsackievirus B3 Induced Myocarditis: Role of CMI." Postdoctoral Fellowship, $15,500, 7/88 - 6/89. American Heart Association, Nebraska Affiliate (PI). "Enterovirus Re-exposure as a New Model for Coxsackie B virus-induced Myocarditis." Grant-In-Aid, $19,675, 7/90 - 6/91. Institute of Nutrition, UNC at Chapel Hill (PI) "The Effect of Dietary Selenium on the Immunomodulation of Viral-Induced Myocarditis" $3,000 7/1/93-6/30/94. United States Environmental Protection Agency (Co-PI) "Estimating the Dose of Mite Allergen Inhaled During Common Indoor Activities" $106,104 10/1/93 - 9/30/94. Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center Small Grant Competition (PI). "A Murine Model for Protection of Neonates from Enterovirus-Induced Encephalitis and Meningitis" $13,000 10/1/93 -6/30/94 Institute of Nutrition, UNC at Chapel Hill (PI) "Impact of Se and/or Vitamin E Deficiency on Coxsackievirus-Induced Myocarditis" $5,000 7/1/94 - 6/30/95. National Institutes of Health "Enterovirus Infection and Reinfection: CMI and Myocarditis" R29 HL46195, (PI) $336,779, 4/1/91 - 3/31/96. United States Department of Agriculture, Co-Operative Agreement (PI) $61,395, 4/1/95-3/31/97. National Institutes of Health “Dietary Antioxidant Modulation of Enteroviral Pathogenesis”. (PI) R01HL54123, $641,269, 7/1/96-6/30/00. National Institutes of Health “SCOR in Pathobiology of Lung Development, Project 4: Virus-Induced Immune Cell Response and Cytokine Production”, P50-HL56395 (PI of Project 4, A. Collier PI), $621,906, 12/1/96-11/30/01. Nestec, Inc. (PI) “The effect of Se on virus mutations” Supported Research Agreement, 2/1/99-1/21/01, $120,000 National Institutes of Health (PI) “The Role of Nutrition in Virus-Induced Optic Neuropathy” R01EY12410, $1,580,000, 4/15/99-4/14/07. National Institutes of Health (PI-S. Zeisel) “Clinical Nutrition Research Unit (Now called Nutrition and Obesity Center” 5P30 DK56350 Director of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Core, $430,000, 10/1/99-9/30/15. National Institutes of Health (PI) “The Influence of Nutrition on Influenza Virus Infection” 1 RO1 HL66212-01A1, $900,000 7/01/01-6/30/05. National Institutes of Health (PI) “Nutrition, Viral Mutation and Host Defense” 1 RO1 AI055050-01 $2, 643,166, 10/1/03-1/31/09 Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation BCTR0600706 (05/01/2006-04/30/2009) “ The role of dietary antioxidants and expression of Nm23-H1 in breast cancer skeletal metastasis” $100,000 annual direct National Institutes of Health (PI) “Risk of Influenza Infection in a Vaccinated Obese Population” RO1 AI78090 $435,000 (annual direct) 12/1/08-11/30/17 National Institutes of Health (PI) “Viral Adaptation to Host Selenium Status” (04/01/2010-3/31/2014). RO1AI082298. $250,000 (annual direct).



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