Program Schedule

Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence in the United States

Session: Poster Abstract Session: Sexually Transmitted Infections: Epidemiology, Screening, and Management
Saturday, October 11, 2014
Room: The Pennsylvania Convention Center: IDExpo Hall BC

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence is not well characterized and two national studies (NHANES 2001-2004; Ginocchio et al. 2012) provided estimates for women between 3.2% and 8.7%. This may be related to differences in study populations, methodologies, and changes over time. In both studies, prevalence was highest in women age 30+ years. The prevalence of T. vaginalis in men is much less studied. To assess prevalence in both, men and women, we screened samples from individuals (n=6362) of all four CDC STD surveillance regions.

Methods: For women (n=4324), residual vaginal/cervical swab specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhea (NG) screening (age 14-29 years, n=1851) and cervical cytology specimens for HPV screening (age 30+ years, n=2473) were included. Urethral swab and urine specimens from men ages 14-65 years for CT/GC testing (n=2038) were also included. Overall, samples were enrolled from 38 U.S. states over a 8 month period. Testing was performed with the APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis Assay on the PANTHER System (Hologic, GenProbe).

Results: Overall positivity rates were 3.8% (95% CI 3.2-4.4) in women and 1.3% (0.8-1.9) in men (Figure). Rates differed by age for women (p<0.0001) and by geography for women and men (p<0.0001). Positivity rates were highest in the 20-29 year age group (women: 6.1%, 4.7-7.8; men: 2.0%, 0.9-3.7) and in the South (women: 6.3%, 4.9-7.8; men: 2.9%, 1.6-4.9). Positivity for T. vaginalis correlated with CT/NG detection in women ages 14-29 (odds ratio [OR] 2.5; 1.4-4.2; adjusted OR [aOR] for age 2.7; 1.6-4.7) and for HPV in women ages 30-65 (OR 2.2; 1.2-4.2, aOR for age 2.0; 1.0-3.8). No significant association with CT/NG detection was observed in men (OR 0.9; 0.3-3.1; aOR for age 1.0; 0.3-3.4)

Conclusion: For this cross-sectional study we targeted a routine screening population by using samples submitted for STD screening in women age 14-29, cervical cancer screening age 30-65, and STD screening in men age 14-65. Prevalence estimates in women are similar to those from NHANES 2001-2004 (2.3%-4.1%). In contrast to the two previous studies but similar to other STIs, positivity rates were highest in the 20-29 year age group. The overall prevalence of T. vaginalis in men was almost 3-times lower than in women.

Brianne Couturier, Ph.D.1, Elisabeth Malmberg, MS1, Kimberly Kalp1, Tatum Lunt1 and Robert Schlaberg, MD, MPH2, (1)Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, ARUP Laboratories, Salt Lake City, UT, (2)Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT


B. Couturier, Gen-Probe: Collaborator, Kits supplied for study

E. Malmberg, None

K. Kalp, None

T. Lunt, None

R. Schlaberg, Hologic: Grant Investigator and Research Contractor, Grant recipient, Research grant and Research support

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