Measles and Mumps Antibody Response in Young Adults after a Third Dose of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
Third doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine have been administered in recent mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations, and are routinely given in non-outbreak settings for healthcare personnel, military recruits, international travelers, and college students who may have been vaccinated as children but who lack documentation. Yet, data on the immunogenicity of a third dose of MMR vaccine (MMR3) are limited. Thus, we assessed measles and mumps virus neutralizing antibody levels pre- and post-MMR3 in a non-outbreak setting.
Measles and mumps antibody levels were assessed at baseline, one month and one year after MMR3 in subjects aged 18-28 years. For mumps, titers <8 mIU/mL were considered seronegative, 8-<16 mIU/mL were low, and ≥16 were high. For measles, concentrations <8 mIU/mL were considered seronegative, 8-120 mIU/mL were low, 121-900 mIU/mL were medium, and >900 mIU/mL were high.
For measles, 1 (0.2%) of 662 subjects was seronegative and 23 (3.5%) had low concentrations of measles antibodies at baseline. One year post-MMR3, 10 (1.6%) subjects had low measles antibody concentrations and none were negative. For mumps, 5 (0.8%) of 656 subjects had seronegative mumps neutralizing antibody titers and 38 (5.8%) had low titers at baseline. One year post-MMR3, these numbers declined to 3 (0.5%) and 16 (2.4%), respectively. Subjects with low baseline antibody levels were more likely to have low 1-month and 1-year levels for both measles (R2=0.54-0.68, P<0.0001) and mumps (R2=0.81-0.87, P<0.0001). Compared to baseline, geometric mean concentrations/titers were significantly higher at 1-month (P<0.0001) and 1-year (P<0.05) after MMR3 for measles and mumps, however, reverse cumulative distribution curves showed only minimal shifts in measles and mumps levels from baseline to 1-month and 1-year.
Very few subjects had low or negative antibody levels for measles or mumps at baseline. Nonetheless, measles concentrations and mumps titers had modest but significant increases when measured 1-month and 1-year post-MMR3. This temporary increase in antibody levels after MMR3 could decrease susceptibility to disease during outbreaks.
A. P. Fiebelkorn,
E. Belongia, None
S. Freeman, None
D. York, None
D. Bi, None
C. Zhang, None
L. Ngo, None
S. Rubin, None
A. Kulkarni, None
S. Audet, None
J. Beeler, None
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