Procalcitonin and Interleukin-6: Biomarkers of Cancer and Infection
Procalcitonin (PCT) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) have emerged as biomarkers for different inflammatory conditions, including cancer and infection. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of PCT and IL-6 as biomarkers of cancer and its progression in a large cohort of patients with and without infection.
This prospective, observational study included residual plasma samples collected from febrile and non-febrile cancer patients, and control subjects without cancer. Levels of PCT and IL-6 were determined by Kryptor compact bioanalyzer and ELISA respectively.
We identified a total of 1064 patients, including 575 febrile cancer patients, 410 non-febrile cancer patients, and 79 non-cancer individuals. The median PCT level was lower in control subjects (0.029 ng/ml) compared to cancer patients with stage I-III disease (0.127 ng/ml) (p<0.0001) and stage IV disease (0.190 ng/ml) (p<0.0001). It was also higher in febrile cancer patients (0.310 ng/ml) compared to non-febrile cancer patients (0.1 ng/ml) (p<0.0001). PCT was also higher in febrile cancer patients with sepsis or bacteremia (0.490 ng/ml) compared to those without microbiological documented infection (0.310 ng/ml) (p=0.003). Median IL-6 level was significantly lower in the control group (0 pg/ml) than in non-febrile cancer patients with stages I-III (7.376 pg/ml) or stage IV (9.635 pg/ml) (p<0.0001), but did not differ in patients with stage IV cancer from those with stage I-III.
Our results suggest a potential role for PCT and IL-6 in predicting cancer in non-febrile patients. PCT is also useful in detecting cancer and its progression in non-febrile patients. However, in febrile cancer patients, PCT predicts bacteremia or sepsis.
A. M. Chaftari,
R. Reitzel, None
M. Jamal, None
M. Jordan, None
Y. Jiang, None
A. Yousif, None
K. Garoge, None
P. Deshmukh, None
Z. Al Hamal, None
J. Jabbour, None
A. Hanania, None
S. Raad, None
R. Hachem, None
I. Raad, Atellas: Grant Investigator, Grant recipient
Pfizer: Consultant, Consulting fee