Methods: In infants aged 1 to 12 months with more than 2 weeks of bowel habit change in spite of milk protein restriction, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was identified with stool culture. Various associated clinical data were collected through reviewing medical records. After at least two years of follow-up, history of atopic conditions at early childhood was collected through medical records and parent-reported questionnaires. After dividing into two groups according to the presence of CDI, the risk of atopy development at childhood was identified with logistic regression analysis.
Results: A total of 65 patients were included, and 22 (33.8%) were diagnosed with CDI. The mean age at collection of fecal sample was 5.55±2.91 months, and 33 (50.8%) were male. Mode of delivery, gestational age, birth weight, maternal age at birth, birth order, duration of breast feeding, history of NICU admission and parental history of atopy were not different between two groups. Risk of developing at least one atopic condition was higher in CDI present group after adjusting for other variables (aOR=5.61; 95% CI 1.52-20.74, p=0.01). Food allergy was more prevalent in CDI present group (p=0.035). Infants with CDI were at higher risk of developing asthma (aOR=3.03; 95% CI 0.48-19.14), allergic rhinitis (aOR=4.42; 95% CI 0.63-31.25), and atopic dermatitis (aOR=5.93; 95% CI 0.63-55.28) without significance.
Conclusion: Colonization by C difficile in infancy increased the risk of atopic diseases in early childhood. CDI in infancy may affect the intestinal microbial circumstances through the change of immune response.
H. Tchah, None
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