Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide health problem. In 2013, an estimated 9 million people developed TB, most of which in South East Asian Region. Of these, 13 percent were HIV positives. India alone accounts for 24 percent of total TB cases making it the world's TB capital. HIV increases persons susceptibility to TB and in resource-strained country like India, TB could be one of the earliest manifestations in people with HIV.
A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Antiretroviral (ART) clinic of District Hospital, Pratapgarh, UP, India from April 2014 to March 2015. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to counsel and collect data. Blood samples of the patients was tested for HIV infection using highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Western Blot techniques. All the patients, irrespective of signs and symptoms of chest infection, were screened for pulmonary TB by chest X-ray and microscopic examination of sputum for acid fast bacillus (AFB) using standard technique.
- Government of India has implemented successful counseling and testing centres across the country for effective early diagnosis and treatment of people infected with HIV. This study shows that 4,931 (97.7%) patients agreed to get tested for HIV out of 5,044 total patients who attended the counselling centre.
- Out of the tested popuation of 4,931 individuals, 195 were positive for HIV (53% were females and 47% were males), that corroborates to a prevalence of 3.95%.
- This study showed that the prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection was 18.1% among HIV positive patients.
This study was a hospital-based analysis of the prevalence of HIV and HIV/TB co-infection and the findings might not be generalizable. However, the study shows that the prevalence of HIV was higher than that of the national average, conducted by WHO in 2005-06. Here, it is clearly seen that Integrated Counseling and Testing Center (ICTC) implemented by National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), played an imminent role at an entry level with its effective counseling and testing. Creating grass root level awareness and aggressively testing high-risk population could be the key in preventing and early diagnosis of this dual infection.
R. Tripathi, None