Methods: During the period of one year from July 2013-July 2014, we collected GNB isolates from untreated effluents samples of two tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore, South India. All isolates were subjected for antibiotic susceptibility test by Kirby Bauer method. Antibiogram analysis was done. The isolates showing resistant to carbapenem group (imipenem or meropenem) were selected and DNA was extracted. After DNA extraction, isolates were tested for the presence of bla NDM-1 gene using PCR and were confirmed by sequencing the gene. MIC was determined by E strip method for tetracycline, cotrimaxazole, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime.
Results: A total of 45 effluent samples were collected and 414 GNB were isolated. Of the 414 isolates, 341 were found to be multidrug resistant. Out of 220 carbapenem-resistant isolates, 22 isolates were positive for blaNDM-1 (E. coli 7, Klebsiella spp 6, Pseudomonas spp 6, Enterobacter 1, Proteus spp 1 and Shigella spp 1). Isolates sent for sequencing matched with the sequences of gene bank in a range of 96 - 99%.
Conclusion: To minimize the risk of rapid dissemination of this multi-drug resistant emerging pathogen to the community and environment, indiscriminate usage of antibiotics should be controlled in hospitals along with adapting appropriate effluent treatment strategies.
D. Vijay Kumar, None
A. Shetty, None
I. Karunasagar, None
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