Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of illness and death among infants and young children worldwide. According to the WHO, an estimated 2.5 billion cases of diarrhea occur among children under 5 years of age each year. Nearly one in five pediatric deaths (about 1.5 billion each year) is due to diarrhea. Present study was thus drawn to identify microbial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in pediatric patients in Western India.
This was Prospective laboratory based study approved by Institutional Ethical committee. 100 stool samples were collected from children admitted with acute diarrhea of 72 hours or less duration in 1- 60 months of age over a period of one year.
Bacteria were identified by standard Microbiological methods and Serotyping of isolated E. coli was done.
Rotavirusantigen was detected by ELISA followed by genotyping by RT-PCR and Multiplex PCR.
Parasitic identification was done by microscopy.
74% of children with diarrhea were in the age group of 7 to 12 months. Watery diarrhea (94%) was the commonest clinical presentation, followed by vomiting (78%), fever (78%), and dehydration (74%).
Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 51% of samples. Escherichia coli was most common (48%) followed by Shigella flexneri (2%) and Vibrio cholerae (1%). The most prevalent E. coli type was ETEC (20.8%) followed by EPEC (16.7%), EHEC (4.1%), and STEC (2.1%). The most prevalent serotypes of ETEC were O27, O23, and O169. Among EPEC most prevalent serotypes were O90, O26. The most prevalent EHECstrain found in this study was O71.
Rotavirus was detected in 35% of patients. Most prevalent Rotavirusgenotype was G9P (28.6%) followed by G2P (21.4%), G1P (21.4%) , G12P (14.3%), G9P (7.1%) .
Parasitic etiology was detected in 5% of cases.
Coinfection of E.coli and Rotavirus was detected in 23% of children. Rotavirus was most commonly associated with EPEC(25.7%) followed by ETEC (17.1%).
Conclusion: In the present study, E. coli was the commonest microorganism followed by Rotavirus. Thus, the importance of safe water and food hygiene would be most important intervention to prevent acute gastroenteritis in children along with Rotavirus vaccine.
R. Bharadwaj, None