2495. Changes in Pneumonia Incidence and Infant Mortality 5 Years Following Introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in a “3+0” Schedule in Nicaragua
Session: Oral Abstract Session: Pneumococcal and Pertussis Vaccines
Saturday, October 7, 2017: 2:45 PM
Room: 08
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes an estimated 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for funding from the GAVI Alliance to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program.

Methods: Numbers of visits for pneumonia, pneumonia-related deaths, bacterial meningitis, and infant deaths between 2008 and 2015 were collected from all 107 public health facilities in León Department. Vital statistics data provided additional counts of pneumonia-related deaths that occurred outside health facilities. Adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRa) in the vaccine (2011-2015) and pre-vaccine periods (2008-2010) were estimated using official population estimates as exposure time.

Results: The IRRa for pneumonia hospitalizations was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 0.75) for infants, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) for one year olds. The IRRa for post-neonatal infant mortality was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.77). In the population as a whole, ambulatory visits and hospitalizations for pneumonia, as well as pneumonia-related mortality and rates of bacterial meningitis were lower in the vaccine period.

Conclusion: Five years following program introduction, reductions were observed in health facility visits for pneumonia in immunized age groups and infant mortality, which would be hard to achieve with any other single public health intervention. Future study is warranted to understand whether the lack of a booster dose (e.g., at 12 months) may be responsible for the small reductions in pneumonia hospitalizations observed in one year-olds as compared to infants.

Sylvia Becker-Dreps, MD, MPH1, Bryan Blette, BS2, Rafaela Briceno, MD3, Jorge Aleman, MD4, Michael G. Hudgens, PhD5, Gilberto Moreno, MD, MPH6, Ana Ordonez, RN3, Julio Rocha, RN, MPH7, David J. Weber, MD, MPH, FIDSA, FSHEA8 and Erick Amaya, PhD9, (1)Family Medicine, University of North Carolina At Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, (2)Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, (3)Sistemas Locales de Atención Integral a la Salud, León (SILAIS-León), Leon, Nicaragua, (4)Hospital Escuela Oscar Danilo Rosales Argüello (HEODRA), León, Nicaragua, Leon, Nicaragua, (5)Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, (6)Epidemiology, Sistemas Locales de Atención Integral a la Salud, León (SILAIS-León), León, Nicaragua, (7)Epidemiology, Hospital Escuela Oscar Danilo Rosales Argüello (HEODRA), León, Nicaragua, Leon, Nicaragua, (8)Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina At Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, (9)Microbiology, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Nicaragua, León, León, Nicaragua

Disclosures:

S. Becker-Dreps, Pfizer: Consultant and Grant Investigator , Consulting fee and Research grant

B. Blette, None

R. Briceno, None

J. Aleman, None

M. G. Hudgens, None

G. Moreno, None

A. Ordonez, None

J. Rocha, None

D. J. Weber, Pfizer: Consultant and Speaker's Bureau , Consulting fee and Speaker honorarium

E. Amaya, None

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