The use of probiotics in hospitalized patients ordered antibiotics has been associated with a preventative effect against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a few small studies and meta-analyses. Starting in 2014, all adult patients admitted to our 330-bed community hospital who were started on an antibiotic automatically received a course of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii(SB). Our study provides a much larger experience with which to assess the preventative use of SB in patients receiving concomitant antibiotics.
Rates of CDI were compared during the three-year periods before and after the automatic SB protocol implementation. CDI infection rates using ICD-9 code and CDC hospital-associated infection (HAI) definitions were compared. Use of CDI treatment agents (oral vancomycin and oral metronidazole) expressed in DDD/1,000 patient-days, and rates of SB infections/cultures were also assessed. All rates were standardized per hospital census. Clostridium difficile laboratory detection was performed by PCR analysis throughout the study period.
Case rates of CDI using ICD-9 or CDC HAI definitions did not differ before and after protocol implementation (p=0.165 and p=0.521, respectively). Use of CDI treatment antibiotics were also similar; oral metronidazole (p=0.269), oral vancomycin (p=0.938), total CDI agents (p=0.633). Positive specimen cultures for SB where identified in 2 patients prior to protocol and in 27 patients during the protocol years. Actual SB infections from sterile body sites were identified in 5 patients during the protocol versus only 1 case in the pre-protocol years (p=0.035). The average yearly cost of SB prophylaxis was $63,000.
In our global assessment of this data, the use of an automatic SB protocol at our community hospital was not associated with a protective effect against CDI. The use of SB was associated with an increased risk of SB infections. Further study of SB and other probiotic formulations for CDI prevention is warranted.
R. Dermitt, None
L. Morris, None
S. Colodny, None