Background: Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics. Nephrotoxicity related to FQ use is infrequently reported and the mechanism of renal injury is incompletely elucidated. We describe clinical manifestations and outcome of patients with biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) associated with FQ use at our institution.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of biopsy-proven AIN attributed to FQ use at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 1993 to 2016. Cases were reviewed by a renal pathologist and attributed to FQ use by an expert nephrologist. We also reviewed and summarized all published case reports of biopsy proven AIN that were attributed to FQ use.
Results: We identified 24 patients with FQ related biopsy-proven AIN. The most commonly used FQ was ciprofloxacin (71%) with median antibiotic treatment duration of 7 days (Figure 1). The median duration between starting FQ and the diagnosis of AIN was 8.5 (IQR: 17). Common clinical manifestations included fever (50%), flank pain (8%), and skin rash (21%). However, 17% of the patients were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis (Figure 2). Majority (58%) of the patients recovered following discontinuation of antibiotics and returned to baseline renal function at a median of 20.5 (IQR: 15.5). Six patients required temporary hemodialysis and 9 patients received steroids.
Conclusion: Onset of FQ related AIN can be delayed and a high index of suspicion is needed by physicians prescribing these agents. Overall outcomes are favorable with recovery to baseline renal function within 3 weeks of discontinuing the offending drug.
Figure 1: Types of Fluoroquinolone used
Figure 2: Presenting clinical features
M. Mahmood, None
Z. Esquer Garrigos, None
A. Hamadah, None
S. Nasr, None
N. Leung, None
M. R. Sohail, None
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