1765. Strain-level determination of the contribution of gut microbiota to the development of bacteremia in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation
Session: Oral Abstract Session: Host-Pathogen Integration
Saturday, October 7, 2017: 9:15 AM
Room: 07AB
Background: Infection is a major preventable cause of transplant-related morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Bacteremia is the most common infectious complication in HCT, often occurring during periods of mucositis when the risk for microbial translocation from the intestine is increased. Prior research in HCT patients using 16S rRNA sequencing demonstrated that gut microbiota dominance by either Enterococcus spp. or Proteobacteria was associated with the development of bacteremia with Enterococcus spp. and gram-negative organisms, respectively. No studies to date, however, have compared bacteremia isolates and gut microbiota samples at a strain-specific level using next-generation shotgun metagenomic sequencing (NGS).

Methods: In order to assess the degree of genetic similarity between bacteremia isolates and the gut microbiota, we identified patients who had undergone HCT at Stanford and developed a bacteremia between October 2015 and September 2016 for whom we had both saved blood culture isolates and stool samples within 30 days preceding bacteremia. We identified 15 patients from whom we had 17 bacteremia isolates, and performed NGS (Illumina HiSeq 4000) on stool and isolate DNA. We generated draft assemblies of isolate genomes using the SPAdes assembler, and aligned stool metagenomic reads to the draft isolate genomes using Bowtie2, filtering reads for perfect end-to-end alignment.

Results: Enteric gram-negative bacteremia isolates were identical to those in the gut microbiota, as has been demonstrated in prior studies using older strain-typing methods. Surprisingly, we also identified gram-positive organisms that were identical in both the blood and stool prior to bacteremia, which challenges existing dogma regarding sources of gram-positive bacteremia-causing organisms.

Conclusion: Using a highly sensitive and accurate NGS-based strain typing method, we provide evidence of translocation of organisms from the gut microbiota and subsequent bacteremia. The gut was confirmed as a source for both classic enteric gram-negative and classically non-enteric gram-positive bacteremia in HCT patients. These findings may have implications for the origins of bacteremia in HCT patients previously classified as CLABSIs.

Tessa Andermann, MD, MPH1, Fiona B. Tamburini, BS2, Ekaterina Tkachenko, BS3, Fiona Senchyna, BS4, Niaz Banaei, MD5 and Ami Bhatt, MD, PhD2,3, (1)Medicine/ID, Stanford, Stanford, CA, (2)Genetics, Stanford, Stanford, CA, (3)Hematology, Stanford, Stanford, CA, (4)Pathology, Stanford, Stanford, CA, (5)Departments of Pathology and Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA


T. Andermann, None

F. B. Tamburini, None

E. Tkachenko, None

F. Senchyna, None

N. Banaei, None

A. Bhatt, Janssen Human Microbiome Institute / Johnson and Johnson: Consultant , Consulting fee

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