Background: CABP is the number one reason for death by infectious diseases worldwide and emerging resistance complicates its treatment. Lefamulin is the first semi-synthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic for IV and oral use in humans. It is currently in Phase 3 trials for the treatment of CABP in adults. Lefamulin effectively and selectively inhibits bacterial translation by binding to the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) via four H-bonds and other interactions at the A- and P-site resulting in an induced fit. This study investigated the activity of lefamulin and comparators against a contemporary set of bacterial pathogens associated with community-acquired respiratory infections collected worldwide.
Methods: Unique patients isolates (n=2817) were collected globally in US (19.7%), Europe (36.9%), Latin America (5.7%) and Asia-Pacific region (37.6%) (30 countries, 116 sites) from adult and paediatric patients with respiratory tract infection (88.0%), bloodstream infections (5.5%) and other infections (2.4%). Lefamulin and comparators were tested by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was determined using the CLSI (2017) breakpoints.
Results: LEF was the most potent compound tested, with 99.7% of all S. pneumoniae isolates being inhibited at a concentration of ≤0.25 mg/L (MIC50/90 values of 0.06/0.12 mg/L) and its activity was not affected by resistance to other antibiotic classes. S. pneumoniae isolates were largely susceptible to levofloxacin (99.1%) and ceftriaxone (96.5%), while 34.5%, 23.3% and 16.8% of isolates were resistant to macrolides, tetracycline and clindamycin, respectively. Lefamulin also showed potent activity against H. influenzae (MIC50/90 of 0.5/1 mg/L), including 22.0% of ß-lactamase producing strains, and M. catarrhalis (0.06/0.12 mg/L).
Conclusion: Lefamulin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against this global collection of contemporary respiratory pathogens and its activity was unchanged regardless of resistance phenotype to the other antibiotic classes including macrolides, ß-lactams, tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones. These data support the continued clinical development of lefamulin for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, including CABP.
J. M. Streit, Nabriva Therapeutics: Research Contractor , Research grant
R. K. Flamm, Nabriva Therapeutics: Research Contractor , Research grant
S. P. Gelone, Nabriva Therapeutics: Employee and Shareholder , Salary
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