Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. All patients presenting to the Emergency Departments (EDs) or outpatient practices with EB UTIs between 2010 and 2013 were included. Exposed patients had ESC-R EB UTIs. Unexposed patients had ESC-susceptible EB UTIs and were matched to exposed subjects 1:1 on study year. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between ESC-R EB UTI and time to recurrent UTI within 12 months. Patients were censored at the time of first recurrent UTI or at the end of follow up.
Results: A total of 302 patients with an index community-onset EB UTI were included, with 151 exposed and unexposed. Within 12 months of the index UTI, 163 (54%) patients experienced a recurrent UTI. The median time to recurrence was 69 days (interquartile range 25-183 days). On multivariable analyses, a UTI due to an ESC-R EB was associated with an increased hazard of recurrent UTI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.91, P = 0.04). Other variables that were independently associated with an increased hazard of recurrent UTI included a history of UTI in the 6 months prior to the index UTI (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.15, P <0.01) and presence of a urinary catheter at the time of the index UTI diagnosis (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.06-2.38, P = 0.03).
Conclusion: Community-onset UTI due to an ESC-R EB organism is associated with a significantly increased hazard of recurrent UTI within 12 months even after adjusting for baseline factors that predispose patients to UTI recurrence. This study raises the question of whether patients with an ESC-R EB organism may require modified treatment regimens. Further study is needed to better elucidate the cause of recurrence among these patients.
I. Nachamkin, None
C. Garrigan, None
W. Bilker, None
J. Omorogbe, None
L. Dankwa, None
M. K. Wheeler, None
P. Tolomeo, None
J. Han, None
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