Pneumonia remains the leading killer with an estimated of 922,000 fatalities or 15% of all deaths in < 5-year-old children in 2013. Mortality can be reduced by providing appropriate treatment to the pathogens. The objectives of this study are to describe the causes of pneumonia that may change after the introduction of vaccines and to identify biomarkers to differentiate between bacterial and viral infection.
A 2-year multicenter cohort study of children between 2-month 5-year old with pneumonia has been conducted in three hospitals in Indonesia since July 2017. Demographics, clinical, laboratory, radiology, treatment data, have been recorded. Blood, urine, nasopharyngeal swab, sputum/induced sputum, specimens have been collected for biomarkers, culture, molecular and serological tests.
33 from 99 pneumonia subjects screened were enrolled in this study since July 2017. 20 (60.6%) subjects had bacterial and viral coinfection, 10 (30.3%) subjects with bacterial infection, 2 (6.0%) subjects with viral infection, and 1 (3.0%) subject had unknown etiology. Demography, clinical signs and symptoms, disease and vaccination history, laboratory, and radiological evaluation are shown in table 1. The etiologies of pneumonia are described in figure 1.
Mixed viral and bacterial infection were predominant. Several atypical pathogens were identified. No significant different in biomarkers between viral, bacterial and mixed infection groups was found. This finding highlights the need to improve diagnostic capacity to aid clinicians in pneumonia management.
A. Budiman, None
H. Farida, None
M. S. Anam, None
M. R. Ridho, None
I. P. Dewi, None
M. H. Aziz, None
H. Kosasih, None
M. Karyana, None